COFFEE
external image 4_1196890656_coffee.jpg
Coffee is part of the class of stimulating beverages. It is known for its high caffeine content and its stimulating effect on humans. Coffee is grown in the form of a bean that is often referred to as a "cherry" due to the bright red fruit that develops of the coffee plant. The cherries were originally eaten plain, but the beverage coffee as we know it today is created through the use of coffee cherries that go through a complex process which results in a bean that is roasted. The coffee plant has many different varieties, but only three varieties are cultivated. Coffee has become an important aspect of many countries and comes in many different forms. Coffee is just one of various stimulating beverages and some other stimulating beverages include: Tea , Hot Chocolate(Cocoa ), Energy Drinks(Guarana ), and Soft-Drinks (Kola Nut).

Classification
Coffea arabica L.

external image coffee_plant_fb2c.jpgexternal image iStock_coffee_plant.jpg
Diagram of the Coffee Plant Coffee cherries before harvest
Kingdom:
Plantae
Plants
Subkingdom:
Tracheobionta
Vascular Plants
Superdivision:
Spermatophyta
Seed Plants
Division:
Magnoliophyta
Flowering Plants
Class:
Magnoliopsida
Dicotyledons
Subclass:
Asteridae

Order:
Rubiales

Family:
Rubiaceae
Madder Family
Genus:
Coffea L.

Species:
Coffea arabica L.
Arabian Coffee


History
A myth says that goats actually discovered the stimulating properties of copies. The goat herder noticed that they came back friskier than normal one day and he discovered they had been eating the berries of a tree. The goat herder tried the berries and discovered similar stimulating effects. At first the berries were eaten whole, they crushed and mixed with fat. Around the thirteenth century, coffee beans began to be roasted and developed the form we know coffee beans as today.

Around 1500 A.D. coffee trees were cultivated in Yemen and coffee drinking had spread throughout the Arabian world. Coffee was originally used to keep worshipers awake during long services. Coffee drinking soon became a social habit as well and as a result many coffeehouses were established. Coffeehouses became controversial due to religious leaders feeling that people spent too much time in coffee houses and less in the mosques, and to political leaders being disconcerted by the fact that political discussions were common in coffeehouses.

Coffee was introduced to Europe in 1615 by Venetian traders. By 1700 coffeehouses were popular throughout Europe and they became popular centers for intellectual and political discussions, commerce, and arts. They acquired the nickname “penny universities”, named for the price of a cup of coffee. Coffee remained popular in Europe, though in England many coffeehouses were closed, as tea became the drink of choice.
external image ExplorePAHistory-a0b8z6-a_349.jpg
The London Coffee House

The first coffee house in North American opened in Boston in 1669. Coffee houses in North America were used as meeting places for businessmen and merchants rather than for intellectual discussions. Starting in the 1960s coffeehouses became popular again in the United States for political thought and socially conscious folk music. Coffee is becoming more popular around the world today, with thousands of coffeehouses opening in Japan over the past 30 years.

Map of the spread of coffee through the world
external image coffee.gif

Graph Major Coffee Producers From National Geographic (Top ten producers pictured in yellow)
external image mapM.gif




Varieties

There are over 60 different species of Coffea, but only three are cultivated: Coffea arabica, Coffea canephora, ,and Coffea liberica.

Coffea arabica produces the majority of the coffee beans, making up about 85% of all coffee grown. There are over 100 varieties and it is the only species grown in Latin America. It has the mildest flavor of all coffees.
Coffea canephora, also known as robusta, is grown in Africa and Asia, where it produces a coffee resistant to coffee rust and other fungi. It is easier to harvest and the yields produced by it are higher than Coffea arabica. It has a strong, harsher taste and is used in mostly instant and decaffeinated coffees.
Coffea liberica is grown in Africa, in lower altitudes. It is not widely used and is very bitter.

All the different varieties of coffee have distinct tastes, which vary greatly by the region in which it is grown.
external image arab_robust_md.jpg


Distribution of Coffee: r = cannephora (robusta), m= cannephora and arabica, a= arabica
external image 350px-Carte_Coffea_robusta_arabic.png

Cultivation to Cup of Coffee

external image coffee_goto.jpg
Cherries after harvest

Coffee trees thrive in tropical and subtropical climate, needing 60 to 100 inches of rain per year and grow best in high altitude of 3,000 to 6,000 feet at a stable temperature of 68 degrees fahrenheit. It takes 3 to 5 years for a coffee tree to begin bearing fruit and from that point it will bear fruit for about 35 years. Each mature tree yields between 5.5 to 6.6 pounds of cherries per year. Most coffee is harvested by hand, yet some plantations with the right terrain use mechanical pickers. Once picked, the cherries must be depulped, which is done in one of two ways: the wet method and the dry method. In the wet method, which is often used in Latin America, floating the cherries in a tank removes the debris. Then the cherries are depulped in a mechanical method, the beans remain in the tank for 24 hours, undergoing a fermenting process which removes residual pulp. From here, the beans are washed and dried and the seed coats are removed mechanically. In the dry method, used primarily in Africa, the cherries dry for several days in the open and then the beans are mechanically removed. At this stage the beans are green and are ready to roast.
external image pulped.jpg
Unroasted coffee beans

The roasting process determines the flavor of the coffee and varies based on the desired result. The darkness of the roasted bean depends on the temperature at which the bean is roasted. A light roast is roasted at a temperature of 414 degrees to 424 degrees fahrenheit, while a dark French roast is roasted at a temperature of 482 degrees fahrenheit. The lighter roasts are sweeter and have a mild flavor, whereas the darker roasts are stronger and less sweet.

external image coffee-beans-austin-texas.jpg
Varying Roasts of Coffee

The Production Trail of Coffee


From YouTube.com


Coffee Roasts

external image coffee_roasts.jpg
Coffee bean from raw (1) to a very dark roast(16)

The process of roasting raw coffee beans is essential in developing the characteristic flavor of coffee. The Chemical reactions that take place during roasting turn the carbohydrates and fats within the beans into aromatic oils. Moisture and carbon dioxide are burnt off and acids are broken down and built up. It is the combination and length of these chemical reactions that allow the flavor of coffee to develop. Depending on the difference in roasting times, different roasts of coffee are formed. Below is an examination of the process for creating different roasts and the qualities that each possess.

Light Roast - also known as Cinnamon roast, half city, and New England.
The light roast is what most American coffee is made out of. To create a light roast the beans must be roasted for about seven minutes. The light roast contains a light flavor.

Medium Roast - also known as full city, American, regular, breakfast, and brown
American specialty coffee sellers often used a medium roast. To create a medium roast, the bean in roasted for nine to eleven minutes. The light roast has a fuller body and is a little bit sweeter than the light roast.

Dark Roast - also known as high, Viennese, French, and continental.
The dark roast is a roast that is popular in the northwest of America. To create a dark roast, the bean is roasted for 12 to 13 minutes. The dark roast is slightly spicy and has a strong aroma.

Darkest Roast - also known as Italian and espresso.
The darkest roasts of coffee let the sugars in the bean begin to carbonize and smoke. To create the darkest roast, beans are roasted for about 14 minutes. The darkest roasts have a smokey flavor and have lost most of the flavor of the bean.

Caffeine Content

Coffee can be turned into many different forms. The most common is a cup of regular brewed coffee, but espresso, lattes and cappuccinos are also popular forms. These different beverages are made through different methods and beans and the caffeine content in each varies.
external image espresso.jpgexternal image cap_5293urban-caffe-latte-posters.jpgexternal image coffee%20poster.bmp
Product
Average Caffeine Content
Drip (5 ounce cup)
115mg
Decaf (5 ounce cup)
3 mg
Espresso (1.5-2 Ounce cup)
100 mg

In addition, each coffee shop has their own roasts of coffee that they prefer. Therefore, the caffeine levels in a cup of coffee will vary depending on which store it comes from and what beans they use to make their coffee
external image dunkin-donuts.gif external image starbucks_cup.jpg
Type of coffee
Caffeine
(milligrams)
Dunkin' Donuts, brewed, 16 oz (480 mL)
143-206
Generic brewed, 8 oz (240 mL)
95-200
Generic brewed, decaffeinated, 8 oz (240 mL)
2-12
Generic instant, 8 oz (240 mL)
27-173
Generic instant, decaffeinated, 8 oz (240 mL)
2-12
Starbucks Espresso, 1 oz (30 mL)
58-75
Starbucks Vanilla Latte, 16 oz (480 mL)
150
Taken from the Mayo Clinic

Coffee Consumption

Coffee Consumption has become more and more popular over the years. Below are charts which examine the increase in coffee consumption over a 20 year period and the consumption of coffee by country.In addition, below is a chart that examines the consumption of coffee in the United States, breaking consumption down among the different retail dynamics.

Chart of Worldwide Coffee Consumption by ICO
external image Chart_CoffeeConsumption.gif
Year
Coffee Cosumption (Metric Tons)
1987
5,389,020
1988
5,141,346
1989
5,577,923
1990
5,700,426
1991
5,534,980
1992
5,941,882
1993
5,831,907
1994
5,630,668
1995
5,568,640
1996
5,946,151
1997
6,106,989
1998
6,136,832
1999
6,402,013
2000
6,558,920
2001
6,645,410
2002
6,786,421
2003
6,871,866
2004
7,171,065
2005
7,138,829
2006
7,146,422
2007
7,358,897

Countries with Highest Coffee Consumption per Person
Rank
Country
Amount(kg)
#1
Norway
10.7
#2
Finland
10.1
#3
Denmark
9.7
#4
Sweden
7.8
#5
Netherlands
7.1
#6
Switzerland
7
#7
Germany
5.7
#8
Austria
5.5
#9
Belgium
5
#10
France
3.9
#11
Italy
3.2
#12
UnitedStates
3
#13
Canada
2.4
#14
Australia
2
#15
Japan
1.4
#16
UnitedKingdom
1.2
#17
New Zealand
0.9
#18
Ireland
0.7
#19
Weighted Average
4.9
Data From Nation Master




References:
1.) Leventin, Estelle and Karen McMahon. Plants and Society Fifth Edition. McGraw-Hill, NY 2008.
2.) http://plants.usda.gov/java/ClassificationServlet?source=profile&symbol=COAR2&display=3
3.) International Coffee Organization (ICO). 2009. Historical Coffee Statistics. London : ICO. http://www.ico.org/historical.asp
4.) http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/caffeine/AN01211
5.) http://www.nationalgeographic.com/coffee/main.html
6.) http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/foo_cof_con-food-coffee-consumption#source
7.) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GAfd9Q5ACFc